first_img Citation: Can Athletic Uniform Color Determine Winners and Losers? (2008, February 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-02-athletic-uniform-winners-losers.html It’s not uncommon for some athletes to have good luck charms, including the superstition that wearing certain colors may give them an edge on the competition. While some studies have found that, indeed, certain colors may increase the likelihood of winning in combat sports, a recent study shows that researchers must take into account potentially confounding factors when associating color with winning probability. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. However, the potential psychological effect of color in sport doesn’t end there. Numerous other studies have shown that other colors – notably red and orange – can signal aggression and dominance in a wide variety of organisms. Some research points out that, in fair-skinned humans, anger can cause the face to redden. Psychological research has also shown that color can impact an individual’s mood, behavior, brain activity, and even body posture. Perhaps due to these reasons, one study found that athletes in red have a winning bias over athletes in blue in a variety of sports, including men’s Greco-Roman wrestling, freestyle wrestling, boxing, and tae kwon do. Another study found that football and hockey teams with black uniforms receive more penalties than other teams. Some of these associations between color and performance may still very likely be true. Dijkstra and Preenan just advise that researchers be careful to account for all contributing factors when investigating color-associated winning biases in sports.“We do believe in the effect of red,” said Dijkstra. “Red is associated with anger, fear and failure in human societies; in many animals red increases the likelihood of winning. Yet, the findings of Hill and Barton (in 2005) that athletes in red win more often in four combat sports requires a re-evaluation, because their analysis may also be confounded by similar factors as described in our study for judo. Ultimately, experimental work is needed (also for the presumed lack of an effect of blue-white) to determine whether color biases winning in human sport.”More information: Dijkstra, Peter D. and Preenen, Paul T. Y. “No effect of blue on winning contests in judo.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1700. Copyright 2008 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Opponents compete in a judo match. Image credit: US Marine Corps.center_img Dutch researchers Peter Dijkstra of the University of Glasgow and Paul Preenen of the University of Amsterdam have investigated the claim of a previous study that judo athletes wearing blue uniforms were more likely to win compared with those in white uniforms during the 2004 Olympics. Supposedly, blue could have an intimidating effect on opponents, since it is brighter than white. Further, white uniforms might be easier to see than blue uniforms, giving the athlete in blue the advantage of anticipating the movements of an opponent in white.However, Dijkstra and Preenen point out several confounding factors that the previous study did not account for. Taking these factors into consideration, the researchers found that athletes in blue and white uniforms had equal chances of winning a contest.The researchers determined three confounding factors in the previous study. First, the top 11 percent of judo athletes in the 2004 Olympics were seeded, and all were given blue uniforms. Although the previous study tried to correct for the seeding by excluding first-round matches, Dijkstra and Preenen show that the seeding bias persists up through the third round of matches.Second, the researchers explained that athletes competing in the “loser’s pool” also had a uniform color bias, since athletes in blue were more likely to have won their previous match. Further, in the loser’s pool, athletes in blue were also more likely to have competed in one fewer match than athletes in white. And third, athletes in blue had slightly longer periods of time between matches, giving them more time to rest than athletes in white.When correcting for these three factors, the researchers found that pitting blue uniforms against white uniforms was actually a very fair match-up. They confirmed this result by analyzing 71 other major judo tournaments since 1996. Overall, they recommend that blue-white uniform pairings are an ideal match for ensuring equal play. “Our paper emphasizes the need to carefully consider potential confounding factors,” Dijkstra told PhysOrg.com. “This holds, of course, for every single research project, no matter what it’s about. Surely, our findings are important for sport policy makers; blue-white most likely ensures an equal level of play, in contrast to blue-red.” Explore further How Japan’s renewables-powered Olympics could kick off a global race for clean energylast_img read more

first_img Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. All entrepreneurs want their company to be an overnight success. But if you are lucky enough to experience rapid growth, as Gautum Gupta, founder and CEO of NatureBox discovered, you’ll face a new set of challenges. His subscription-based healthy snack company sold a respectable 50,000 boxes in 2012, but thanks to aggressive social media marketing, sales skyrocketed to over a million boxes sold in 2013. Gupta has found one of his biggest challenges staying in touch with everyone involved in NatureBox from partners, employees and even professional contacts.“There so many apps available, and I used to spend a lot of time trying different ones,” says Gupta. “Then I realized that I didn’t need to reinvent the wheel and started asking other entrepreneurs for their recommendations. Several of my favorite apps have been suggested to me by colleagues and friends.”Here are three apps that Gupta uses throughout his day: Image credit: Contractually Image credit: Yammer Register Now » 4 min read 2. Yammer. As NatureBox rocketed from three people at the beginning of 2012 to 55 this year, Gupta wanted to create a sense of community. He set up Yammer as a company-wide online bulletin board that can both be used on the desktop and mobile, using it as a sort of Facebook for the workplace. When employees log onto the site, they will find anything from an update on a companywide project to funny photos of the employee parking lot with the caption “Guess Who Can’t Park.” “It can be very challenging to make sure that everyone knows what is going on and this is a great way to keep in touch,” says Gupta.He also uses the forum to update staffers with articles on the snack industry and recently polled employees on business card designs and where they should go for the next company’s monthly happy hour. “We often have healthy debates about articles and how it relates to what we are building at NatureBox,” Gupta says. “Yammer has really helped us our employees to be on the same page as well as bond with each other.” 1. 15five. In the early days, status reporting at NatureBox was catch-as-catch-can, with Gupta getting updates from email or quick hallway meetings. But as the staff grew, it was easy for Gupta to forget a conversation or not remember where he had written his notes. Gupta needed a way to keep track of the employees reporting to him without micromanaging and wound up downloading 15five, a web-based team communication application, on the recommendation of a fellow entrepreneur. Each week his teams take 10-15 minutes answering questions on an online form that Gupta takes around five minutes to read.“My day can often get away from me and this really reduces the need for many one-on-one meetings,” Gupta says. “Using 15five gives our status reporting much more structure and allows us to keep all of the communication in one place.” “I’ve found that it works best with smaller teams of three to five people. Each week I try to make my questions short and simple to reduce the time it takes my employees to fill it out.”  Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals February 20, 2014 3. Contactually. To keep connected, Gupta uses this app that integrates into his email and LinkedIn accounts and alerts him on whatever device he selects when he hasn’t communicated with someone in set period of time, such as 90 days. “Last year I got an alert reminding me that I hadn’t been in touch with a friend in 3 months so I wrote up a quick email telling him about what was going on at NatureBox and that we were looking to expand our social media team,” says Gupta. “He emailed me back to tell me that one of his former collegues was an excellent social media manager and we ended up hiring her.” About two three times a month he also sends a handwritten note and a Nature Box when he gets a Contactually reminder or when someone helps out NatureBox such as with reference for a new hire. Image credit: Yammer Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right.last_img read more