first_imgJPMorgan Chase & Co, the biggest U.S. bank by assets, said it will repurchase up to $1.88 billion in common shares through the end of the second quarter.The repurchase under the bank’s 2015 capital plan is in addition to the $6.4 billion of shares authorized for repurchase by the board last year.The bank has got a non-objection from the board of governors of the Federal Reserve System to increase the amount for the share repurchase.last_img

first_img Share Laura SkeldingState Board of Education member Marisa Perez-Diaz speaks to a group of people rallying for the inclusion of Mexican-American studies in public school curriculum outside the Texas Education Agency on April 11, 2018.Texas advocates for Mexican-American studies classes won a bitter victory Wednesday, in gaining approval to move forward with the class they wanted, but losing the course title.The board had been debating more than four years over how and whether to offer teachers materials and guidance to teach Mexican-American studies. In a preliminary vote, the State Board of Education voted nearly unanimously to create curriculum standards for the elective class. But now it will be called “Ethnic Studies: An Overview of Americans of Mexican Descent.”  A final vote on the issue is scheduled for Friday.The class will be based on an innovative course Houston ISD got state approval to offer in 2015. Texas Education Agency staff will make any needed changes to that set of curriculum standards and then bring it back for the first of two public hearings and votes in June.Lawrence Allen, a Houston Democrat, was the only member to vote against the newly named course, expressing support for Mexican-American studies but criticizing the new title.Starting a fierce debate with Democrats on the board, Beaumont Republican David Bradley proposed the new name for the course. When asked why he didn’t want to keep “Mexican-American studies,” he said, “I don’t subscribe to hyphenated Americanism. … I find hyphenated Americanism to be divisive.”“As someone who identifies as Mexican-American, your experience is unlike my experience,” San Antonio Democrat Marisa Perez-Diaz retorted. “I’m asking you to be inclusive.”Most Democrats, except for El Paso Democrat Georgina Perez, voted against Bradley’s proposal. But they were outnumbered. Standing outside the hearing room to discuss their strategy after the vote, Texas professors and teachers criticized Perez for voting to strip the Mexican-American studies class of its name and brainstormed future options.“We can change the name in the public comment phase if enough of you turn out,” said Brownsville Democrat Ruben Cortez, who represents District 2 on the board and has been spearheading the fight for a Mexican-American studies course for years.Of 38 people who signed up to testify on the issue, 37 noted they were in favor of approving the course. (The one person who signed up in opposition is Friendswood ISD board member Matt Robinson, likely to replace Bradley in January. He did not speak Wednesday.)Even before the vote, Texas teachers could already offer Mexican-American studies as a social studies elective, but they have to put in additional work to build a course structure and choose textbooks. That left smaller school districts facing an uphill climb to get a class started.With little centralized guidance on what to teach in Mexican-American studies, districts currently offer varying versions of the course.Teachers already offering some version of Mexican-American studies shared positive reviews from their students who talked about being thrilled to see themselves reflected in their coursework. They also asked the board to approve a set of centralized standards for how to teach the course, so they could spend more time teaching than planning what to teach.“Students have a lot more freedom when we learn about our culture,” said Damian Mota, a seventh-grade student at KIPP Camino Academy in San Antonio. “If you walk into our classroom, you’re not going to see a traditional classroom. We are passionate learners who back up our claims.”Teachers and professors who testified cited research showing that students who learn their cultural histories do better academically.“We’re not proposing a supplement to what is already being done,” said University of Texas at Austin professor Emilio Zamora. “Research has demonstrated that Mexican-American studies … does improve academic performance.”At the board’s first public hearing on the matter in January, some Republican board members pushed back on the idea of an official course. Board member Marty Rowley, an Amarill0 Republican, said in January that a Mexican-American studies course could be exclusionary by not focusing on the contribution of “other Latinos to Texas history or American history.”In 2014, the board rejected a proposal to create an official Mexican-American studies course, with some members arguing that creating a separate class would be racially divisive. Instead, board members voted to put ethnic studies, including Mexican-American, African-American, Asian-American and Native American studies, on a list of social studies textbooks it would ask publishers to develop for Texas schools.Critics of that decision have argued that asking publishers to create books without curriculum standards to reference is ineffectual. They said approving the course first, and the standards to go along with it, would give publishers much needed guidance as well as reassurance that school districts might actually buy their textbooks.The board has twice put out calls for ethnic studies textbooks since 2015 and failed to find Mexican-American studies materials they wanted to approve.Board members also voted Wednesday to create a process for approving other elective courses in ethnic studies. Just courses in Native American, Latino, African American and Asian Pacific Islander studies will be considered.Disclosure: The University of Texas at Austin has been a financial supporter of The Texas Tribune, a nonprofit, nonpartisan news organization that is funded in part by donations from members, foundations and corporate sponsors. Financial supporters play no role in the Tribune’s journalism. Find a complete list of them here.last_img read more

first_img Journal information: Physical Review Letters More information: Experimental and Theoretical Evidence for Pressure-Induced Metallization in FeO with Rocksalt-Type Structure, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 026403 (2012) DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.026403AbstractElectrical conductivity of FeO was measured up to 141 GPa and 2480 K in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. The results show that rock-salt (B1) type structured FeO metallizes at around 70 GPa and 1900 K without any structural phase transition. We computed fully self-consistently the electronic structure and the electrical conductivity of B1 FeO as a function of pressure and temperature, and found that although insulating as expected at ambient condition, B1 FeO metallizes at high temperatures, consistent with experiments. The observed metallization is related to spin crossover.via Physics Synopsis Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — Scientists studying the rotation of the Earth have long known that our planet doesn’t have a perfect spin. Most believe this is due to the different types of materials that make up the core, mantle and crust, which all have different rates of spin causing inherent friction. Most models researchers have developed however agree that in order for the planet to wobble the way it does, the mantle would have to respond to the magnetic tug of the core. The problem with this though, is that the mantle is made mostly of rock, not metal, which means it’s not supposed to be conductive. A new kind of metal in the deep Earth Citation: Part of Earth’s mantle shown to be conductive under high pressure and temperatures (2012, January 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-01-earth-mantle-shown-high-pressure.html © 2011 PhysOrg.com New research by a Kenji Ohta and his colleagues at Osaka University in Japan indicates they’ve found a possible explanation. As they describe in their paper published in Physical Review Letters, it appears that Wustite (FeO), believed to be one of the components that make up the Earth’s mantle, can be made to conduct electricity at high pressure and high temperatures.This new work by the team builds on findings from the 1980’s that showed that FeO becomes more conductive when exposed to shock waves. To find out if other conditions might cause the same outcome, the team placed a sample of FeO in a diamond anvil and heated it using a laser. As the experiment proceeded, they also measured the conductivity of the FeO sample.After heating the sample to 1600°C and applying 70 gigapascals of pressure, the team found the sample became as conductive as an average metal. They also noted it did so without any changes occurring to its structure.To find out if the same conductive properties would occur under more harsh conditions, comparable to those found inside the Earth, the team turned up the temperature to 2200°C while ratcheting up the pressure to 1.4 million atmospheres and found the same results. Such measurements suggest, the team theorizes, that the same conductive properties would likely hold under even more extreme conditions such as those found near the boundary between the mantle and the core.To better understand why FeO becomes conductive under high pressure and heat, the team did density and electrical conductivity tests as they relate to temperature and pressure and now believe that the metallization is related to spin crossover. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more