first_img Citation: Can Athletic Uniform Color Determine Winners and Losers? (2008, February 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from It’s not uncommon for some athletes to have good luck charms, including the superstition that wearing certain colors may give them an edge on the competition. While some studies have found that, indeed, certain colors may increase the likelihood of winning in combat sports, a recent study shows that researchers must take into account potentially confounding factors when associating color with winning probability. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. However, the potential psychological effect of color in sport doesn’t end there. Numerous other studies have shown that other colors – notably red and orange – can signal aggression and dominance in a wide variety of organisms. Some research points out that, in fair-skinned humans, anger can cause the face to redden. Psychological research has also shown that color can impact an individual’s mood, behavior, brain activity, and even body posture. Perhaps due to these reasons, one study found that athletes in red have a winning bias over athletes in blue in a variety of sports, including men’s Greco-Roman wrestling, freestyle wrestling, boxing, and tae kwon do. Another study found that football and hockey teams with black uniforms receive more penalties than other teams. Some of these associations between color and performance may still very likely be true. Dijkstra and Preenan just advise that researchers be careful to account for all contributing factors when investigating color-associated winning biases in sports.“We do believe in the effect of red,” said Dijkstra. “Red is associated with anger, fear and failure in human societies; in many animals red increases the likelihood of winning. Yet, the findings of Hill and Barton (in 2005) that athletes in red win more often in four combat sports requires a re-evaluation, because their analysis may also be confounded by similar factors as described in our study for judo. Ultimately, experimental work is needed (also for the presumed lack of an effect of blue-white) to determine whether color biases winning in human sport.”More information: Dijkstra, Peter D. and Preenen, Paul T. Y. “No effect of blue on winning contests in judo.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1700. Copyright 2008 All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of Opponents compete in a judo match. Image credit: US Marine Corps.last_img read more

first_img Journal information: Physical Review Letters More information: Experimental and Theoretical Evidence for Pressure-Induced Metallization in FeO with Rocksalt-Type Structure, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 026403 (2012) DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.026403AbstractElectrical conductivity of FeO was measured up to 141 GPa and 2480 K in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. The results show that rock-salt (B1) type structured FeO metallizes at around 70 GPa and 1900 K without any structural phase transition. We computed fully self-consistently the electronic structure and the electrical conductivity of B1 FeO as a function of pressure and temperature, and found that although insulating as expected at ambient condition, B1 FeO metallizes at high temperatures, consistent with experiments. The observed metallization is related to spin crossover.via Physics Synopsis Explore further ( — Scientists studying the rotation of the Earth have long known that our planet doesn’t have a perfect spin. Most believe this is due to the different types of materials that make up the core, mantle and crust, which all have different rates of spin causing inherent friction. Most models researchers have developed however agree that in order for the planet to wobble the way it does, the mantle would have to respond to the magnetic tug of the core. The problem with this though, is that the mantle is made mostly of rock, not metal, which means it’s not supposed to be conductive. A new kind of metal in the deep Earth Citation: Part of Earth’s mantle shown to be conductive under high pressure and temperatures (2012, January 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from © 2011 New research by a Kenji Ohta and his colleagues at Osaka University in Japan indicates they’ve found a possible explanation. As they describe in their paper published in Physical Review Letters, it appears that Wustite (FeO), believed to be one of the components that make up the Earth’s mantle, can be made to conduct electricity at high pressure and high temperatures.This new work by the team builds on findings from the 1980’s that showed that FeO becomes more conductive when exposed to shock waves. To find out if other conditions might cause the same outcome, the team placed a sample of FeO in a diamond anvil and heated it using a laser. As the experiment proceeded, they also measured the conductivity of the FeO sample.After heating the sample to 1600°C and applying 70 gigapascals of pressure, the team found the sample became as conductive as an average metal. They also noted it did so without any changes occurring to its structure.To find out if the same conductive properties would occur under more harsh conditions, comparable to those found inside the Earth, the team turned up the temperature to 2200°C while ratcheting up the pressure to 1.4 million atmospheres and found the same results. Such measurements suggest, the team theorizes, that the same conductive properties would likely hold under even more extreme conditions such as those found near the boundary between the mantle and the core.To better understand why FeO becomes conductive under high pressure and heat, the team did density and electrical conductivity tests as they relate to temperature and pressure and now believe that the metallization is related to spin crossover. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

first_img © 2012 Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Very early human ancestors are believed to have eaten mostly fruits and insects, a trait they shared with most modern apes. At some point however, as the climate changed, our ancestors shifted their diet to include grasses and sedges. Previous evidence had shown that a Paranthropus boisei hominin had existed by eating mostly plants, but carbon dating had shown that individual to have lived approximately 2.8 million years ago. The A. bahrelghazali tooth fossils in this new study are from 3 to 3.5 million years ago, pushing back the date that our ancestors came down out of the trees and began eating C4 grasses, though it’s not clear if they were eating actual grass blades or the roots and tubers that support such plants.A. bahrelghazali stood approximately five feet tall (similar in size to modern chimpanzees) and walked on two legs. It also had a projecting jaw with powerful muscles and large teeth that enabled it to grind plant material to aid digestion. During its time, the part of African where it lived was covered with lakes, floodplains and wooded grasslands, which would lead quite naturally to a change in eating habits if a pattern of living on the ground as opposed to trees developed.Grasses and sedges are generally high fiber foods that also have complex starches and some even have tissue that also offers nutrients, thus, A. bahrelghazali would have been able to survive on such a diet despite not having evolved a sophisticated plant processing digestive system such as that seen with modern cows.The researchers acknowledge that because there is so little fossil evidence to work with, it is possible that the carbon levels found in the tooth fossils came from eating animals that consumed C4 plants, but thus far there is no other evidence to suggest that was the case. Citation: Researchers find human ancestors switched to eating grasses earlier than thought (2012, November 13) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Explore further More information: Isotopic evidence for an early shift to C4 resources by Pliocene hominins in Chad, PNAS, Published online before print November 12, 2012, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1204209109AbstractFoods derived from C4 plants were important in the dietary ecology of early Pleistocene hominins in southern and eastern Africa, but the origins and geographic variability of this relationship remain unknown. Carbon isotope data show that Australopithecus bahrelghazali individuals from Koro Toro in Chad are significantly enriched in 13C, indicating a dependence on C4 resources. As these sites are over 3 million years in age, the results extend the pattern of C4 dependence seen in Paranthropus boisei in East Africa by more than 1.5 million years. The Koro Toro hominin fossils were found in argillaceous sandstone levels along with abundant grazing and aquatic faunal elements that, in combination, indicate the presence of open to wooded grasslands and stream channels associated with a greatly enlarged Lake Chad. In such an environment, the most abundant C4 plant resources available to A. bahrelghazali were grasses and sedges, neither of which is usually considered as standard great ape fare. The results suggest an early and fundamental shift in hominin dietary ecology that facilitated the exploitation of new habitats.Press release When African animals hit the hay: Fossil teeth show who ate what and when as grasses emerged This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (—An international team of researchers has found evidence that suggests a human ancestor – Australopithecus bahrelghazali – was eating grass plants almost a million years earlier than most scientists had thought. In their paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team says carbon dating of tooth fossil samples found in Chad indicate early hominins had been dining on a diet heavy in plants that contained 4 carbon atoms (C4), which are typical of grasses or sedges.last_img read more

center_img The researchers, Jay Shah and coauthors from the UK, Germany, and Norway, have published a paper on the discovery of the oldest magnetic record in a recent issue of Nature Communications.”Our study shows that magnetic fields that were present during the birth of our solar system are credibly contained within meteorite samples that we have in our collections,” Shah told “With a better understanding of these complex magnetization structures, we can access this magnetic field information, and deduce how our solar system evolved from a disk of dust to the planetary system we see today.”In the field of paleomagnetism, the main objects of study are ancient rocks and other materials which, as they cooled during their formation, acquired a thermoremanent magnetization imparted by the magnetic fields present at the time. By studying these magnetic materials, researchers can find clues as to what kinds of magnetic fields existed in the early solar system.As the researchers explain in their paper, the underpinning hypothesis in paleomagnetism is Néel’s single domain theory, which predicts that uniformly magnetized grains can retain their magnetic states over geological timescales. However, Néel’s theory says nothing about non-uniformly magnetized grains, which are the most abundant form of magnetism present in rocks and meteorites. Although some research has suggested that non-uniform magnetization states do not retain their magnetization very well, the question has remained unanswered until now.The new study shows, for the first time, that iron with non-uniform magnetization states can retain magnetic recordings from more than 4 billion years ago. To show this, the researchers used cutting-edge imaging techniques (nanometric magnetic imaging and off-axis electron holography) to study the magnetic grains in dusty olivine, which are a few hundred nanometers in size. In tests, the researchers heated the grains above 300 °C, the highest temperature that these meteorites would have experienced since forming 4.6 billion years ago, and observed that the grains retain their magnetic states. As the thermal relaxation times at this temperature are longer than the age of the solar system, the results strongly indicate that the thermoremanent magnetization imparted during their formation has remained stable to the present day.The researchers expect that the results will lead to a better understanding of the magnetic field in the early solar system, and even how the solar system originated.”I hope that this study can drive a better understanding of complex magnetization structures that will result in more sophisticated analyses of ancient magnetic fields throughout the solar system, including those on Earth,” Shah said. Citation: Oldest magnetic record in the solar system discovered in a meteorite (2018, April 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Researchers have found that an iron-containing mineral called dusty olivine, present in meteorites, retains a record of the magnetic field from the early solar system around 4.6 billion years ago. The results are surprising, as the magnetism in dusty olivine is non-uniform, and non-uniform magnetic materials have previously been thought to be poor magnetic recorders. The discovery may lead to new insight into how the solar system formed—with the help of magnetic fields—from a protoplanetary disk. Magnetic fields frozen into meteorite grains tell a shocking tale of solar system birthlast_img read more

first_img Dandelion seeds reveal newly discovered form of natural flight Explore further Credit: CC0 Public Domain More information: P. G. Ledda et al. Flow dynamics of a dandelion pappus: A linear stability approach, Physical Review Fluids (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.4.071901 Last year, a team at the University of Edinburgh published the results of their study on the flight of dandelion seeds, conducted using cameras and miniature wind tunnels. They discovered that the unique design of the pappus—the parachute-looking bristles—allowed the seeds to float on the wind in a very efficient manner. They found that as the pappus floats along, the spines channel the air around them in such a way as to form a vortex in the pappus’s wake. And because the air pressure is lower in the vortex, the pappus and its seed cargo are able to remain aloft longer than they would otherwise. In this new effort, the researchers sought to better understand the role of the number of spines in creating the vortex and in maintaining flight stability.To better understand the flight behavior of the pappus, the researchers created models to mimic its behavior using equations from fluid dynamics. In their paper, they describe their models as collections of rods connected together in a way that was similar to the spokes on a bicycle wheel. The physics equations allowed them to model airflow patterns that occur naturally as a pappus floats through the air. Credit: Physical Review Fluids (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.4.071901 The researchers report that their models showed the same kinds of vortices forming as the researchers with the prior effort had seen first-hand. They next ran the models using different numbers of rods. They found that the optimum number was 100, which matched the number found in a real pappus. At this number, the pappus was most stable while floating—with more rods, flight became unstable; with fewer rods, flight distance was reduced. They suggest their findings could be used to design lighter-weight parachutes.center_img Citation: Equations from fluid dynamics used to find optimum arrangement of rods in dandelion pappus (2019, July 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from A team of researchers from École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, the University of Twente and Università di Pisa has used equations from fluid dynamics to find the optimum arrangement of rods in a dandelion pappus. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the group describes their work and what it showed. © 2019 Science X Network This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Physical Review Letterslast_img read more

first_imgAre you one of those who frequent the bylanes of Jama Masjid and Nizamuddin to gorge on Delhi’s signature cuisine? Snack on chaats at every possible opportunity? Pounce on the kulfis whenever you get the chance? Well, take heart. Now you don’t have to explore and go all over the town in search of your favourite Delhi cuisine. Get ready for the second edition of Delhi Ke Pakwan Festival which starts next month. Organised by Delhi Tourism, the festival will bring together the culinary delights of the age-old shops of Purani Dilli. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The week-long festival is all about celebrating Delhi and its cuisine and will bring together various food items. The entire venue will be redefined with the Old Delhicharm as celebrations in Purani Dilli with features such as a wishing tree, auto and cycle rickshaw, potter etc. dig into the famous chaat, kulfi, biryani and kebabs from the labyrinths of old Delhi under one roof. Apart from food items, there will also be various cultural activities, handicrafts, puppet show, talk show and much more. Also, there will be free candies for kids.DETAILAt: Baba Kharak Singh Marg When: 8-14 Februarylast_img read more